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Extra resources for 07.Circuits and Systems - Analog and Digital Signal Processing
The second ampliﬁer has a gain magnitude equal to 10 and has a linear phase shift given by θ = −ω. Thus, its transfer function can be expressed as The third ampliﬁer also has a gain magnitude equal to 10, but it has a nonlinear phase characteristic given by θ = −ω3 . Thus, its transfer function is given by Figure 5 depicts the output of the ﬁrst ampliﬁer. Since the ampliﬁer is perfectly ideal, the output is exactly 10vi . Figure 6 shows the output of the second ampliﬁer, and it is seen that the waveform at the output of the ampliﬁer with linear phase is the same as shown in Fig.
Figure 12 shows a one-amplifier (inverting) comparator. The hysteresis is established by the network RA –RB, which yields Eh = RB (V+ )/(RA + RB ) Limiters (Figs. 8 to 10) Comparators (Figs. 11 and 12) Multipliers and dividers (Fig. 13) Waveform generators (Figs. 14 and 15) Circuits based upon these types of operations may be extended to circuits that precisely measure absolute value, amplitude, peak value, and logarithmic operations. ) A variety of other waveform generators, including triangle waveform and very low-frequency oscillators (function generators) and frequency modulation (FM) oscillators, may be implemented.
In most system analyses, time and space constitute the independent variables. That is, measurements are distinguished from each other and ordered according to the location in the time–space continuum at which the measurements were made. The measured quantities are the dependent variables, and they may be expressed as functions of time and/or space. Some familiar dependent variables include voltage, displacement, velocity, pressure, temperature, stress, and force. The measurement of these variables requires the selection of appropriate instruments, along with a decision as to the manner in which the measurements are to be recorded and utilized.