By Michael Anderson
Even if we regularly seek social and ancient records for clues to our earlier, organic records maybe carry crucial facts of our historical past. The qualities we inherit from our mom and dad and go directly to our offspring are encoded in our genes and DNA and exhibit a lot approximately either our origins and our destiny. This quantity examines the interesting biology at the back of genetics and genetic problems. It additionally conscientiously considers the foundations of gene manipulation and genetic engineering whose power to revolutionize drugs, undefined, and agriculture is turning into more and more obvious with each new discovery.
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Extra info for A Closer Look at Genes and Genetic Engineering (Introduction to Biology)
After the new strands are completed, each bonds to its particular template strand. 40 The Nature of Chromosomes and Genes Essential Amino Acids Although more than 100 different amino acids exist in nature, only 20 are found in living things. This latter group is called the essential amino acids. Some essential amino acids have more than one triplet codon. For example, the triplets AAA and AAG both code for lysine. Proline has four codons—CCA, CCT, CCC, or CCG—while tryptophan has only one: TGG.
In Wilson’s disease, a defect that impairs copper metabolism causes toxic levels of copper to accumulate in the liver and brain. Inborn errors of metabolism are autosomal recessive disorders caused by mutations in genes coding for metabolic enzymes. Phenylketonuria (PKU), which leads to severe mental retardation, is one of the few such disorders that is treatable: infants can 47 A Closer Look at Genes and Genetic Engineering be tested for it, and brain damage can be avoided with a special diet.
French geneticists François Jacob and Jacques Monod later determined how DNA directs protein synthesis, thereby deciphering the genetic code of the DNA molecule. Scientists working on the Human Genome Project, a study completed in 2003 that had been 13 years in the making, determined the DNA sequence of the three billion base pairs in human DNA and identified the almost 25,000 genes in the human genome. James Watson and Francis Crick, shown here in a 1976 issue of National Geographic magazine, discovered the molecular structure of DNA in 1953.