By John Butt, Carmen Benjamin (auth.)
(abridged and revised) This reference grammar bargains intermediate and complex scholars a cause ably accomplished advisor to the morphology and syntax of knowledgeable speech and undeniable prose in Spain and Latin the USA on the finish of the 20 th century. Spanish is the most, often the only real legitimate language of twenty-one countries,} and it truly is set reasonable to overhaul English by means of the yr 2000 in numbers 2 of local audio system. This immense geographical and political variety guarantees that Spanish is an efficient deal much less unified than French, German or maybe English, the latter roughly the world over standardized in response to both American or British norms. till the Nineteen Sixties, the standards of the world over right Spanish have been dictated by way of the true Academia Espanola, however the status of this establishment has now sunk so low that its such a lot solemn decrees are rarely taken heavily - witness the destiny of the spelling reforms indexed within the Nuevas normas de prosodia y ortograjia, which have been purported to come into strength in all Spanish-speaking international locations in 1959 and, approximately 40 years later, are nonetheless selectively missed through publishers and literate people all over. in fact that during Spanish 'correctness' is these days made up our minds, because it is in all dwelling languages, through the consensus of local audio system; yet consensus approximately linguistic utilization is clearly tough to accomplish among greater than twenty self sustaining, generally scattered and infrequently at the same time opposed nations. Peninsular Spanish is itself in flux.
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Extra resources for A New Reference Grammar of Modern Spanish
Los c6ctelesllos Formation of the plural nouns 21 c6ctels 'cocktail', los corneresllos carners 'corner' (in soccer), los fraquesllos fracs 'dress-coat'/"tails'. 5 As a rule, if a word ends in b, c, f, g, k, m, p, t, v, or w, or in any two or more consonants, it is almost certainly a foreign word and will make its plural in -s unless it ends with a s, sh or ch sound, d. el kibutz 'kibbutz', el flash, ellunch, el sketch, in which case it will probably be invariable in spontaneous speech. Well-informed speakers may use foreign plurals like los flashes, los kibutzim, los sketches.
The number of times they've said that! la de ltigrimas que soUe (L. SepUlveda, Chile, dialogue) the amount of tears I shed . . g. 2. 6-12: Tengo coche 1've got a car', Mario es ingeniero 'Mario's an engineer', Lo abri6 sin llave 'He opened it without a key', Es mentira 'It's a lie' (b) It can appear in the plural: unos pantalones 'a pair of trousers', Han organizado unas manifestaciones 'They've organized demonstrations', Son unos genios incomprendidos 'They're misunderstood geniuses'.
G. 4. 3. 2. 1 Masculine and feminine definite articles Masculine Feminine Singular el la Plural los las La is always written in full in modern Spanish. Compare Spanish la artista 'woman artist' with Italian l'artista. The -a is not elided in pronunciation before words beginning with a vowel other than a: la emisora 'radio station' is pronounced [laemis6ra], not [lemis6ra]. 2 Use of el and un before certain feminine nouns EI and un are always used immediately before singular feminine nouns beginning with stressed a- or ha-, despite the fact that all the adjectives and pronouns that modify these nouns must be in the feminine form.