By Darryl J. Leiter
One other vital survey within the outstanding Scientists sequence, A to Z of Physicists focuses not just at the lives and personalities of these profiled, but additionally on their study and contributions to the sphere. a desirable and significant component of this quantity is the eye paid to the stumbling blocks that ladies and minority physicists have triumph over to arrive their own objectives. via incidents, quotations, and images, the entries painting whatever of the human face that is frequently misplaced in books on technology and scientists. A to Z of Physicists positive aspects one hundred fifty entries and 50 black-and-white pictures. Culturally inclusive and spanning the total diversity of physicists from precedent days to the current day, this is often an excellent source for college kids and basic readers attracted to the background of physics or the numerous facets of the private lives of vital physicists.
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For more than 20 years (1944 to 1966), he led India’s atomic energy program, advancing his priorities: surveying of natural resources; development of basic sciences—physics, chemistry, and biology; and creation of a program for instrumentation, particularly in electronics. He was determined that India would be self-sufficient in supplying the experts necessary to nuclear energy production. Bhabha also became an important figure in the international science community. He served as president of the first United Nations Conference on the Peaceful Uses of Atomic Energy, held in Geneva in 1955.
Barkla remained at Edinburgh University until his death at his home, Braidwood, in Edinburgh, on October 23, 1944, at the age of 67. Barkla made valuable contributions to our understanding of the absorption and photographic action of X rays. Building on Barkla’s later work, Compton demonstrated the relationship between the characteristic X radiation, a wave, and the corpuscular radiation, a particle, accompanying it. His work also showed both the applicability and the limitations of quantum theory in relation to X rays.
The BCS theory was based on the idea that the interaction between the electrons and the lattice leads to the formation of bound pairs of electrons, called Cooper pairs. The different pairs are strongly coupled to each other; this leads to a complex collective pattern in which a considerable fraction of the total number of conduction electrons are coupled to form a superconducting state. Because of the characteristic coupling of all the electrons, one cannot break up a single pair of electrons without also perturbing all the others, and this process requires an amount of energy that must exceed a critical value.