By James H. Green
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Extra resources for Access Technologies: DSL and Cable
Fiber is used to bring the video signal to an access node with twisted-pair wire supporting the last span. VDSL supports data rates as high as 52 Mbps, which is enough to carry a DS3 over short spans of copper wire. Rates of 52 Mbps can be supported over a 1000ft (330-m) range, but the rate drops to about 13 Mbps beyond 4500 ft (1500 m). 3 Mbps. It can be overlaid over POTS lines. 5 Mbps downstream over a range of up to 18,000 ft (5,500 m). Data Digital Subscriber Line Access Technology 59 travels much more slowly in the upstream direction—in the 64- to 640-kbps range.
The PVC is defined with a specific amount of bandwidth. It represents the minimum bandwidth the carrier agrees to transport. Frames above that bandwidth are carried if the backbone has sufficient capacity. If not, frames can be dropped. Frame relay is a convenient and flexible protocol, but the access circuit is a problem for both carrier and the customer. Only two choices are available: 56/64 kbps or full T1/E1. The carriers pass the access cost along to the user, but they bear the cost of transporting the data to their switch node.
Other architectures are also in use. Some CLECs offer voice over DSL (VoDSL), in which case the customer’s voice and data signals are fed into an integrated access device (IAD) at the subscriber end. At the central office end, the sig- Digital Subscriber Line Access Technology 55 nal may feed into a media gateway, which in effect is a front end that separates the voice and data signals. The alternatives are many and varied, and more are yet to come. DSL Technology DSL lives in an environment that was originally designed for voice transmissions.