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Additional info for Analog-Digital Conversion
Packaging trends also changed in the 1990s from the traditional DIP to smaller surface mount packages suitable for high-volume automatic mass-assembly manufacturing techniques. These included both leaded types and non-leaded types such as ball grid array (BGA) and chip-scale packages (CSP). Even in the general purpose data converter market, there was a demand for more analog and digital functionality, such as putting an entire data acquisition system on a chip including the input multiplexer, programmable gain amplifier (PGA), sample-and-hold, and the ADC function.
The serial interface became popular for interfacing to microprocessors and DSPs. In many cases, the same core DAC design was utilized to provide these various options as separate products in the appropriate packages. Obviously, this required the introduction of many individual DAC products to cover all the desired options. A variety of options existed with respect to the output structure also. Audio and video DACs tended to use current outputs, while some of the more general-purpose DACs offered either current or voltage output options.
The ADC/DAC market was driven by a number of applications, including high resolution digital voltmeters, industrial process control, digital video, military phased array radar, medical imaging, vector scan displays, and raster scan displays. Most of these systems had formerly utilized conventional analog signal processing techniques, and the increased availability of low cost computing technology generated a desire to take advantage of the increased performance and flexibility offered by digital signal processing and analysis— and of course, the need for compatible data converters.