By Thomas L. Floyd
Analog basics: A structures Approach offers exact assurance of analog units and circuits with a structures emphasis. Discrete linear units, operational amplifiers, and different linear built-in circuits, are all coated with much less emphasis at the person machine, and extra dialogue on how those units are included into better circuits and systems.
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Extra info for Analog Fundamentals: A Systems Approach
This is a factor of (a) 10 (b) 20 (c) 100 (d) 200 15. Assume an ampliﬁer has a decibel voltage gain of 100 dB. The output will be larger than the input by a factor of (a) 100 (b) 1000 (c) 10,000 (d) 100,000 16. An important rule for soldering is (a) always use a good acid-based solder (b) always apply solder directly to the iron, never to the parts being soldered (c) wiggle the solder joint as it cools to strengthen it (d) answers (a), (b), and (c) (e) none of these answers TROUBLESHOOTER’S QUIZ Answers are at the end of the chapter.
B) 3. (e) 4. (c) 5. (a) 6. (c) 7. (b) 8. (b) 9. (a) 10. (d) 11. (a) 12. (b) 13. (d) 14. (c) 15. (d) 16. (e) ANSWERS TO TROUBLESHOOTER’S QUIZ 1. increase 5. not change 2. decrease 6. increase 3. not change 4. increase 7. decrease 8. increase 41 CHAPTER 2 DIODES AND APPLICATIONS OUTLINE 2–1 2–2 2–3 2–4 2–5 2–6 2–7 2–8 2–9 2–10 The Atomic Structure of Semiconductors The PN Junction Biasing the Semiconductor Diode Diode Characteristics Rectiﬁers Rectiﬁer Filters and IC Regulators Diode Limiting and Clamping Circuits Special-Purpose Diodes The Diode Data Sheet Troubleshooting OBJECTIVES • Discuss the basic atomic structure of semiconductors • Describe the characteristics of a pn junction • Explain how to bias a semiconductor diode • Describe the basic diode characteristics • Analyze the operation of three basic types of rectiﬁers • Describe the operation of rectiﬁer ﬁlters and IC regulators • Analyze the operation of diode limiters and clampers • Explain the characteristics of four different special-purpose diodes • Interpret and use a diode data sheet • Troubleshoot a power supply using accepted techniques KEY TERMS Energy Electron Semiconductor PN junction Diode Bias Forward bias Reverse bias Rectiﬁer Filter Integrated circuit Limiter Clamper INTRODUCTION In this chapter, the basic materials used in manufacturing diodes, transistors, and integrated circuits are described.
Ap = a V2out >RL V2in >Rin b where RL = load resistor Rin = input resistance of the ampliﬁer The particular equation you choose depends on what information is given. Ampliﬁer Model An ampliﬁer is a device that increases the magnitude of a signal for use by a load. Although ampliﬁers are complicated arrangements of transistors, resistors, and other components, a simpliﬁed description is all that is necessary when the requirement is to analyze the source and load behavior. The ampliﬁer can be thought of as the interface between the source and load, as shown in Figure 1–19(a) and 1–19(b).