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By Shapley H.

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Additional info for [Article] Studies of Magnitudes in Star Clusters V. Further Evidence of the Absence of Scattering of Light in Space

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From 1941 though 1945, he participated in research for the Office of Scientific Research and Development, the National Defense Research Committee, and even traveled to Normandy, France, to observe rockets in use. Anderson added a family to his life in 1946 when, at age 41, he married Lorraine Bergman and adopted her three-year-old-son Marshall David. From 1947 to 1948 he was president of the American Academy of Arts and Sciences. In 1949 two more honors were bestowed upon him: an honorary degree from Temple University and a new son, David Anderson.

His wideranging talents anticipated such Space Age scientific disciplines as planetary science and exobiology. In 1895 Arrhenius became the first scientist to formally associate the presence of “heat trapping” gases, such as carbon dioxide, in a planet’s atmosphere with the greenhouse effect. Then, early in the 20th century, he caused another scientific commotion when he boldly speculated about how life might spread from planet to planet and might even be abundant throughout the universe. Arrhenius was born on February 19, 1859, in the town of Vik, Sweden, on the University of Uppsala’s estates, to Carolina Christina Thunberg and Svante Gustaf Arrhenius, a land surveyor responsible for managing the estates.

During his observations, Baade focused his attention on variable stars, both eruptive variables, and a special kind of pulsating variable— the Cepheid variables. First discovered in 1784 by a 19-year-old English astronomer, John Goodricke (1764–86), Cepheid variable stars are yellow supergiants that expand and contract in a pulsating fashion. The pulsating is not only an expansion and contraction of the physical size of the star, but also of the star’s brightness or luminosity. The time it takes to go through a pulsing cycle depends on the star’s density—longer for a giant star with low density, and shorter for a smaller star with high density.

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