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Kw = [H+][OH−] = 1 × 10−14. In neutral solutions, [H+] = [OH−] and so Kw = [H+]2. Therefore [H+] = √(1 × 10−14) = 1 × 10−7 mol l−1 and pH = −log10[H+] so pH = −log(1 × 10−7) = 7. We can use the relationship [H+(aq)][OH−(aq)] = 1 × 10−14 to calculate the concentration of hydroxide ions in a solution if we know the concentration of hydrogen ions and vice versa. If the hydrogen ion concentration, [H+], is known, then the pH can be calculated. This can be seen in the table on page 29. Just as pH = −log10[H+(aq)], pOH = −log10[OH−(aq)] and a very useful relationship is pH + pOH = 14.

A very useful expression that allows you to calculate the approximate pH of a weak acid from its dissociation constant is When water dissociates into ions, we can write the following equation and identify the conjugate acid and base: HA(aq) + H2O(l) ⇌ 34 + This can be written more simply as You will find values of Ka and pKa on p. 13 of the SQA Data Booklet.  4 of the SQA Data Booklet. The pKa of methanoic acid is given as 3·75 on p. 13 of the SQA Data Booklet. So, substituting this value into the equation pH = 12 pKa − 12 log10c gives pH = 12 (3·75) − 12 log100·010 = 1·875 − 12 (−2) = 2·875 or 2·88 Test yourself on chemical equilibrium at www.

The molar ratio will be the same, but the reaction rate might be different. This is because, as the hydrogen ions from the weak acid are used up, the weak acid dissociates further to replace these hydrogen ions, so that eventually the weak acid will produce the same number of hydrogen ions as the strong acid. Want to revise your knowledge of chemical equilibria? net 1 Which of the following parameters is the same for equal volumes of 0·1 mol l−1 solutions of sodium hydroxide and ammonia? A B C D pH of solution Mass of solute present Conductivity of solution Number of moles of hydrochloric acid needed for neutralisation 2 Which of the following statements is true about an aqueous solution of ammonia?

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